改革开放四十年稀土产业政策演进历程与启示展望
投稿时间:2019-09-24  修订日期:2021-01-04  点此下载全文
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作者单位邮编
苏利平 内蒙古科技大学 014010
高爽 内蒙古科技大学 014010
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(批准号71962028);内蒙古自治区高等学校科学研究项目(批准号NJSY18132)
中文摘要:本文以改革开放四十年来颁发过的252份重要稀土产业政策文本为依据,分析稀土产业政策的政策内涵以及演进趋势。按照四十年来国家对稀土行业管控的目的以及国内、国际的政治、经济、技术变化,把政策分为三个阶段,即鼓励出口发展阶段、限制出口发展阶段、重新放开发展阶段,分析各阶段的特点及其政治、经济、技术背景和内涵。依据政治、经济、技术、市场、资源、环境背景分析的逻辑主线,从稀土资源开发政策、资源保护性利用政策、稀土开发的环境保护政策、稀土资源国际贸易政策、稀土应用技术政策五个角度进一步解读、分析了我国稀土产业政策的内涵演进。希望通过建立或完善稀土相关法律法规,加强前瞻性,增强政策执行力、降低稀土资源开采的环境成本,重视资源环境保护、大力发展稀土应用技术,着力解决稀土产业的“六个不匹配”问题、积极参与全球稀土资源勘查开发,掌握全球稀土行业的话语权来助力加快建成持续健康优质高效的稀土产业体系。可以预见,为适应经济发展和市场需求,未来稀土产业政策在进一步促进高精尖武器研发、纳米材料科技发展、高储能电池技术、智能驾驶技术、海洋生物等领域将会有更多突破。
中文关键词:改革开放四十年  稀土产业政策  演进  稀土贸易  稀土新材料
 
Evolution and Enlightenment of Rare Earth Industry Policy in the Past 40 Years of Reform and Opening-up
Abstract:Based on 252 important rare earth industry policy texts issued in the past 40 years of reform and opening up, this paper analyzes the policy connotation and evolution trend of rare earth industry policy. According to the purpose of the country’s control over the rare earth industry over the past 40 years, as well as domestic, international political, economic, and technological changes, the policy is divided into three stages, namely, the encouraging export development stage, the restricting export development stage, and the reopening of the development stage. The characteristics of each stage and its political, economic and technological background and connotation are analyzed. According to the logic main line of analyzing the background of politics, economy, technology, market, resources and environment, this paper further interprets and analyzes the connotation evolution of China's rare earth industrial policy from five angles: rare earth resource development policy, resource protective utilization policy, environmental protection policy of rare earth development, international trade policy of rare earth resources and rare earth application technology policy. It is hoped that through the establishment or improvement of laws and regulations related to rare earth, we will strengthen the foresight, enhance the implementation of policies, reduce the environmental cost of rare earth resources exploitation, attach importance to the protection of resources and environment, vigorously develop rare earth application technology, strive to solve the "six mismatches" of rare earth industry, actively participate in the exploration and development of global rare earth resources, and grasp the discourse power of global rare earth industry. We will soon build a sustainable, healthy, high-quality and efficient rare earth industry system. It can be predicted that in order to adapt to the economic development and market demand, there will be more breakthroughs in rare earth industrial policies in the future in further promoting the research and development of advanced weapons, the development of nano materials technology, high energy storage battery technology, intelligent driving technology, marine biology and other fields.
keywords:Forty years of reform and opening up  REE industry policy  evolution  Rare earth trade  New rare earth materials
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