|Abstract:Oil and gas regulation faces a new situation，which includes: the number and type of market entities is increasing, geological and ecological environmental risks need to be strengthened and regulatory approach needs to be upgraded. This calls for the provincial administrative department playing a stronger supervisory role. Provincial oil and gas supervision has been relatively passive for a long time, with low participation, whose main job is to cooperate with the Ministry of Natural Resources to implement oil and gas inspection. Although the provinces involved in oil and gas resources have established oil and gas inspectors, and some representative provinces also took the initiative to carry out some supervision work with unconventional oil and gas as a demonstration, provincial oil and gas supervision still has problems which include insufficient working basis, lack of standardized work system, lack of the necessary basic information for regulation. Some consequences are caused such as relatively simple of oil and gas inspector form, weak supervision of mining rights holders, limitation of oil and gas exploration and greater risk of habitat environment and safety in the location where oil and gas resources are mined. Thus, suggestions to strengthen provincial oil and gas supervision work is proposed in this paper which include: (1)improve the regulatory network and promote the shift of the focus of regulatory power; (2)strengthen supervision of "in-the-post and after-the-fact" and improve the whole process supervision mechanism; (3) strengthen policy guidance on oil and gas exploration and mining, and promote the improvement of service system; (4) establish a provincial-level oil and gas regulatory credit system and implement the use of regulatory results; (5) strengthen the construction of oil and gas supervision information, and improve the regulatory efficiency.