中美草原区露天煤矿土地复垦技术对比案例研究
投稿时间:2016-08-23  修订日期:2016-12-04  点此下载全文
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作者单位E-mail
荣颖 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所 rongying0626@126.com 
胡振琪 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所 huzq1963@163.com 
付艳华 中国矿业大学(北京)土地复垦与生态重建研究所  
李典谟 北京市东城区天恒可持续发展研究所  
万旭生 北京市东城区天恒可持续发展研究所  
Anna Waitkus Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality,Cheyenne  
中文摘要:中国露天煤矿多处于生态环境脆弱区,煤炭开采不可避免导致矿区生态环境的进一步恶化,草原区露天煤矿土地复垦已成为焦点。以美国的北安特洛浦/罗切尔矿区和中国内蒙古某露天煤矿为代表,系统对比两国草原区露天煤矿土地复垦在地貌重塑、土壤重构、植被重建等过程中的主要技术措施。研究发现,中国较美国在露天煤矿土地复垦技术上存在一定差异,美国比较注重近似原始地形的地貌重塑、本土植物的调查与保护、土地复垦后期的监测管护。研究认为,中国在草原区露天煤矿土地复垦过程中应该注重地貌重塑的区域协调性、提倡本土植物的利用和种植、减少抚育管理工作量、强化土地复垦后期监管,以保障矿区土地可持续利用。
中文关键词:美国  中国  草原区  露天煤矿  土地复垦
 
Comparative Study on Land Reclamation Technology in Typical Surface Coal Mine in Steppe Region between China and USA
Abstract:The surface coal mine of China is mostly in the ecological environment fragile zone, and coal mining inevitably leads to a further deterioration of the ecological environment in mining areas. China faces the task of land reclamation and ecological restoration, which becomes a focus of researches. Based on the case study of North antelope Rochelle coal mine in USA and a surface coal mine of Inner Mongolia in China, the study has done the systematic research work on major technical measures on reconstruction of landforms, soil and vegetation etc. The study found that America laid emphasis on approximate the original landform reshaping, the investigation and protection of the native plants, post mining land monitoring. The study concluded that China should pay attention to regional coordination of landform reshaping, promote plantation of native plants, reduce tending management, strengthen post mining monitoring of land reclamation in surface mine in steppe region, so as to guarantee the sustainable use of the mine-area land.
keywords:America  China  steppe region  surface mine  land reclamation
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